To be successful in potato cultivation, you must know everything from land preparation to conservation. It is seen in the field that some are making much profit by cultivating potatoes and some are facing losses. Let the reader know the detailed information about potato cultivation method other info.
How to potato cultivation land preparation
Cultivation season: Mid-Kartik in the north (first week of November), 1st to 2nd week of the month of Agrahayan in the south (mid-November last week).
Suitable climate: Potato is a very cold crop Potatoes grow well even in temperate regions However, in the winter season of the non-equatorial region, as in our country, potato can be cultivated Temperatures of 18-21 C are ideal for potatoes, but more heat at the beginning of plant growth and less heat at the end of the tuber season. Potatoes can tolerate even a small amount of snow, but in extreme cold (-20 to 30) the tuber stops growing and the cell structure is damaged.
The average rainfall during the season is 30 inches i.e. 72 mm Potatoes are not good at all in high rainfall; The growth of the tree stops It is easier to attack diseases and pests However, in the hilly areas (180-2170 mm), despite heavy rainfall, the water recedes rapidly and the cold climate prevails, so potatoes can be grown in such an environment. That is why in Darjeeling district of West Bengal, potatoes can be grown in such an environment in summer.
Soil Type: Loam and sandy loam soils are best suited for potatoes. Potatoes can also be grown in etal-loam soils, but they are not very good in such soils. The soil of potato should be well drained, deep and slightly acidic The pH is recommended to be between 5.5-60, as it is not likely to cause scabies, a disease that is harmful to potatoes.
Suitable area for cultivation: Round potato area used to mean Rangpur district Nowadays that is not true At present Dhaka district has the highest potato production in the country It may be mentioned that Dhaka district alone produces more than a quarter of the total potato production in the country. Bogra, Dinajpur, Comilla, Sylhet and Chittagong also produce enough potatoes Leading districts in terms of yield are Dhaka, Sylhet, Chittagong, Rangpur, Noakhali, Faridpur, Khulna and Comilla.
Land preparation method From the month of Ashwin, one has to start preparing the land for potatoes Depending on the nature of the land, it is necessary to cultivate 5/6 wells and pits well with a few ladders Potato land should be cultivated deeply In some areas, such as Munshiganj and Comilla Sadar in Dhaka, farmers cultivate the land with the help of spades and plows. Not only sound education but his alertness and dedication too are most required. Potato growth is hindered in loose and tight soils
One of the aspects of potato cultivation method is to know the steps to be taken before sowing the seeds: Once the seeds are certified, no further action is required before sowing. Otherwise it is better to purify the seeds Mercuric chloride, formaldehyde or yellow oxide of mercury can be used for seed treatment. After dipping the potato seeds in these liquids for a while, the seeds are purified However, some precautions should be taken when using cut seeds, such as-
When cutting seeds, cut vertically with a sharp knife.
Clean cold ash should be applied on the cut side of the seed If all these precautions are taken, the chances of seed rot will be less
- There are benefits to curing cut seed potatoes Cutting seed potatoes for curing at 60-70 degree Fahrenheit (18-21 ??? C) and 75-80% humidity for a week creates a protective layer on the cut surface of the seed which can prevent the entry of pathogens in the seed. Although curing in this way is not possible for ordinary farmers, it is beneficial to spread the seed potatoes in a thin layer on the floor and cover it with a wet cloth for a few days.
- Seed sowing: Potato tuber is used for sowing Protected germinated seeds of previous year are used Potatoes can be planted from the middle of Ashwin to the middle of Agrahayan However, in order to harvest in advance, seeds have to be sown at the end of Bhadra month
- Potato seeds are to be sown in rows The distance from one row to another should be 60 cm, and the distance from one seed to another in the row should be 23-36 cm. It is better to sow the seeds whole, but if they are too big in size, they can be cut and planted in two parts Seeds that are 2 to 3 cm in diameter are best for sowing and do not require pruning while sowing.
And seeds that are more than one centimeter in diameter can be cut and planted The amount of seed required is less when cut and sown, i.e. if whole seed is used, it takes 1500 kg per hectare.
Seeds can be sown in rows in two ways:
- The first method is to prepare the ditch by removing 5-6 cm of soil along each row, then sowing the seeds at a certain distance in that ditch and covering the seeds with soil.
- In the second method, the seeds are sown at regular intervals along the spots of the rows without digging the soil in the rows, i.e. by pulling the soil from the space between the two rows and covering the seeds.
- The latter method is scientific, as it retains the sap of the soil for a longer period of time and the soil in the row is loose, which does not hinder the growth of potato tubers. On the other hand, in the first method, the growth of the stem is hindered due to the pressure of the soil in the drain As a result, the size of the tuber, i.e. potato, remains small
Seed rate: It usually takes 1500-2000 kg seed per hectare for sowing However, if it is large in seed size, it takes more and if it is small, it takes less
Sowing distance: Planting distance is 80-25 cm (whole potato) and 45-15 cm (cut potato).
One of the most important methods of potato cultivation is fertilizer management. Amount of fertilizer: In potato cultivation it is necessary to use fertilizer at the rate mentioned below
Fertilizer name Fertilizer quantity / hectare Fertilizer quantity / percentage
- Urea 220 – 250 kg 600 g – 1 kg
- TSP 120 – 150 kg 500 – 600 g
- MP 220 – 250 kg 600 g – 1 kg
- Gypsum 100 – 120 kg 400 – 500 g
- Zinc sulphate 8 – 10 kg 30-40 g
- Magnesium sulphate
- (For acidic sandy soils) 60 – 100 kg 300-400 g
- Boron (for sandy soil): 10 kg 30-40 g
- Dung manure 8-10 tons 30-40 tons
Fertilizer application method: Dung, half urea, TSP, MP, gypsum and zinc sulphate (if required) should be mixed in the soil at the time of planting. The rest of the urea should be applied 30-35 days after planting i.e. at the time of second tillage Good yields are obtained by applying 80-100 kg / ha magnesium sulphate for acidic sandy soils and 8-10 kg / ha boron for sandy soils.
Irrigation Management: Many farmers in this country, especially those who cultivate native potatoes, do not want to use irrigation water in potato fields. However, in case of high yielding potato varieties, it is necessary to use the same amount of water in the potato field. Irrigation of potato land is quite convenient The whole field is soaked in water as soon as water is introduced into the jug or drain formed by raising the soil at the base of the tree in rows.
Considering that the potato field will always be juicy, regular watering should be done in the potato field Irrigation should be done 2/3 times depending on the type of soil There is no benefit in more irrigation, it will be more harmful than beneficial In this condition the tree will catch small low quality potatoes If water is used irregularly, there is a possibility of growing hollow type of potato with cocoon Irrigation should be stopped two weeks before potato picking It will get the fullness of the potato 6
Weed control: Potato fields should be kept weed free for 60 days after sowing. There is no need to control weeds in potato land separately Weeds are controlled by loosening the soil at the base of the tree and loosening the soil at the base.
One of the methods of potato cultivation is insect attack and control: to know about potato cutting insects.
Type of damage:
- The moth is quite strong, 40-50 mm long
- The back of the insect is dark brown in color, the sides are black lined and the color is grayish green. The body is soft and oily
- Insects cut the seedlings and damage the potato crop by burrowing into the potato.
- Insects hide under the ground during the day Potato cut trees are often seen lying next to the cut orchards
Remedy: 1 If the infestation of cutworms is not very high, the cut potato plant should be seen and the soil around it should be turned upside down to collect the insects and kill them.
2 If the infestation of cutworms is very high, pesticides should be used Chlorpyrifos (Darsban) 20 EC at the rate of 5 mm per liter of water should be mixed and sprayed on the roots and soil of the plant. Spray 30-40 days after planting
Potato twine beetle: Potato twine beetle is small, salty, thin brown gray with brown wings.
- Adult moths are white or light pink in color and 15-20 mm long.
- Insects damage the potatoes by making long tunnels in the potatoes
- Potatoes stored at home in Bangladesh are damaged by this insect
- Remedy: 1 Home-stored potatoes should be covered with a thin layer of dry sand, ash, bran or wood powder (0.5 cm above the potato).
- 2 Before storing potatoes, twine infested potatoes should be selected
Disease control: Potato plague or late blight disease
• First small wet spots appear on leaves, tips and stems
Gradually the spots become larger and surround the entire leaf, tip and stem
????? When the relative humidity is high, most of the land crops are affected within 2-3 days.
• In the morning, white powdery fungus is seen under the affected leaves
• There is a burning smell in the affected field and it looks as if the crops of the land have been burnt.
- Using disease free seeds 6
- Irrigation in the affected land should be stopped as much as possible
- As soon as the disease occurs, fungicides like Ridomyl (0.2%), Dithene M-45 (0.2%) etc. should be sprayed at the approved rate every 10-12 days.
Early blight disease
Symptoms: 1. The lower leaves have small brown, slightly seated angular spots
- Occasionally dark brown spots appear on the affected area with a slight brown area.
- Symptoms of this disease are 8
- Dark brown to dark spots appear on the affected tuber
5 6 Ensure balanced application of fertilizers and timely application of irrigation
. As soon as the disease occurs, apply 2 g of Roveral per liter of water and apply every 7-10 days. Dithene M-45 can be applied at the rate of 0.2%
? 6 varieties of potatoes should be cultivated in advance
Symptoms of stem and potato rot:
- As a result of the attack of this disease, brown spots spread on the base of the stem
- The tree falls down and the leaves, especially the lower ones, turn yellow
- White reticulum of fungus is seen in the affected part or in the surrounding soil
- After a few days, sclerosis develops like mustard seeds.
- Water comes out from the body of potato and it catches digestion Gradually the potato rots and gets spoiled
Remedy: 1 Infected trees should be removed with some soil
2 The land has to be cultivated deeply
3 6 Rotten organic manure should be applied to the land at all times
Symptoms of Potato Stem Cascar Scarf Disease:
- Attack marks are seen on the head and stolon of the sprouted shoot
- Long reddish spots or sores are formed on the base of large trees
- Small tubers can be seen with the stem
- Infected tuberculosis is characterized by severe darkening and latent pathogenic germs
1 Seed can be applied at the rate of 15 kg per hectare before sowing.
2 Seed purification or spraying with 3% boric acid also gives good results
3 6 Seed potatoes should be avoided by planting deeper than the soil
4 6 Well germinated seed potatoes should be planted
Slope and brown rot disease
Symptoms: A branch or a part of a tree may fall down
- The leaves are usually not yellow and fall off when they are green
- If you look at the trunk of the tree towards the orchard, you can see the brown affected area
- The fallen tree shrinks very quickly
- When infected potatoes are cut, brown spots can be seen inside
- It looks like white pus in the eyes of the potato and the potato rots in a few days
- 1 Healthy disease free seeds should be used
- 2 Stable bleaching powder at the rate of 60-70 kg per hectare should be applied to the soil at the time of planting.
- 3 6 Moderate irrigation should be applied and in case of disease, water irrigation should be stopped
Symptoms of potato cultivation Ringworm: Mild ringworm causes brown spots of various sizes on the top of the tuber.
Round holes or pus spots appear in the deep roots of the disease
The onset of the disease is usually limited to the skin
Remedy: 1 Disease free seeds should be used
2 Excessive use of nitrogen fertilizer in the land should be avoided
3 6 Seeds should be purified with 3% boric acid
4 6 120 kg gypsum fertilizer per hectare should be applied in the land
Symptoms of Potato Leaf Wrapping Disease: Infected tree leaves are rough, steep and bent upwards.
• Agar leaves turn light green and tree growth stops
• Sometimes the edges of the affected leaves are reddish purple ?
• The tree is short and stands up straight The number of potatoes decreases to 7
Remedy: 1 Using disease free seeds 6
2 Insecticides (Azedrin, Novacron, Menodrine etc.) should be mixed with 2 mm or 1 mm dimecron per liter of water and sprayed on the soil every 7-10 days.
3 6 Infected trees should be removed along with tubers
Symptoms of Potato Mosaic Disease: • Different types of spots appear on the leaves, the leaves become distorted and small.
Symptoms vary depending on the virus and potato variety
• The vine hangs and later the tree dies
Remedy: 1 Seeds should be collected from healthy trees and disease free seeds should be used
2 Tomatoes, tobacco, and some weeds belonging to the Solanaceae family are alternative carriers of the virus. So such trees cannot be kept in the vicinity Infected trees should be rogged with potatoes
3 6 Jab insect control method should be followed i.e. 1 mm dimecron per liter of water should be mixed and sprayed in the field every 7-10 days.
Symptoms of potato yellow disease:
- The disease is more prevalent in local varieties of potatoes
- Leaves wrinkle and spots appear
- Infected trees are easily seen from a distance Potatoes are small or not at all
1 Disease free seeds should be used
2 Infected trees should be removed by rogging
3 6 Leaf grasshoppers should be controlled by applying pesticides For this Dimecron (0.1%) should be sprayed after 8-10 days
4 6 It should be used as a relatively large size potato seed
Dry rot disease of potato cultivation
- There are some deep black spots on the potato
- Potatoes become holes inside ?
- Although the first decoction is wet, it dries and hardens later ?
- Round folds and sometimes cloudy white fungus reticulum are seen in the affected part
1 Potatoes should be well selected and stored
2 Potatoes should be stored with proper curing
3 6 Seed potato should be treated with Dithene M-45 solution by 0.2%
4 6 Sacks, baskets and warehouses should be cleaned with 5% formalin
5 6 Potatoes should be purified with 2% Tecto 2% powder per kg
Potato soft rot disease
- The cells of the affected part rot
- Rotten potatoes have a pungent odor When pressed, a kind of contaminated water comes out from the potato
- The affected part is softened by ghee which can be easily distinguished from the healthy part
1 Healthy and disease free seeds should be used
2 Excessive irrigation should be avoided
3 6 It is necessary to cultivate in advance to avoid high heat
4 6 Potatoes need to be well selected and stored
5 6 Seed potatoes should be preserved by purifying the tubers with 1% bleaching powder or 3% boric acid solution.
Applying soil at the base of the tree: It is necessary to apply soil at the beginning 30-35 days after planting When the potato plant is 5-6 inches (12-15 cm) in the ground, the soil between the two rows should be lightly chopped and softened. At this time the work of weeding the land is also done No.
The crumbly soil is pulled by a spade and given in rows on both sides of the tree After three weeks, the soil has to be given again at the beginning If the growth of the tree is high, the soil is given once again i.e. for the third time When soil is applied in this way at the base of the tree, the stolons of the tree get a chance to turn into tubers. If the soil is not given properly, the growing potato comes out of the soil and turns green Such potatoes are unsuitable for food and can sometimes be toxic
Signs of maturity: When it is seen that the potato plants are turning yellow and dying, then it is time to pick potatoes. Usually this potato can be harvested within 3 to 4 months of planting
Crop collection and storage: Potato collection: Potatoes are picked from the soil with the help of spade or plow in the potato row. However, care should be taken while picking the potatoes so that the potatoes do not get cut or crushed, as the potatoes rot when stored during crushing.
Potato storage in cold storage: This is a modern management of round potato storage In this system, food and seeds of these two types of potatoes can be stored for a long time Cold storage is a building made of bricks to control coldness and humidity. This is why the house is built in such a way that there are no gaps anywhere in its walls and roof; However, there is a controlled gap through which the hot air inside can be vented with the help of a suction fan.
The temperature in cold storage should be 36-40 Fahrenheit (3.3-4.4 ?? C) for seed potatoes and 55-60 ??? F (12.8-15.5 C) for edible potatoes. The humidity inside the cold storage will be 60% -60% The cold storage is divided into several rooms for storing potatoes Each room is made up of several scaffolding (bamboo or wooden) so that more potatoes can be stored.
Potatoes can be piled on the scaffolding or kept in sacks If the potatoes are kept in piles, the height of the piles should never be more than three meters When placing potatoes in sacks, the sacks should be kept upright on the scaffolding and the sacks should be kept thin so that air can circulate easily inside the sacks. It is mandatory to follow a rule while entering and exiting the potato cold storage Potatoes should be pre-cooled and preheated for 48-62 hours at a temperature of 16-18 ??? C before entering the cold storage.
This makes the potato cultivation tolerant to both cold and cold weather conditions and protects it from spoilage. In the case of edible potatoes, care should be taken to ensure that the temperature of the cold storage does not fall below 4-5 degrees Celsius, as at low temperatures, the potato becomes sweet due to the breakdown of starch into starch. Such potatoes are not suitable for eating then Again, at high temperatures, potatoes germinate easily, which was mentioned at the beginning In this too, potatoes easily become unsuitable for food In this situation, if suitable chemicals are applied, the buds can no longer grow in the potato
The bud resistant chemicals are CIPC, IPPC, TCNB and MENA. Applying a chemical called malic hydrazide on the leaves of the plant before the potato is uprooted, it is seen that the buds in the potato are less likely to grow during cold storage. Applying 3000 ppm malic hydrazide produces very few seedlings in potato, on the other hand 2000 ppm malic hydrazide and after 90 days application of CIPC, the potato stays good for a long time i.e. it is free from germination. 6 can be gained These prerequisites are- read more
Diseased field potatoes should not be stored This is because the potatoes stored in that field can be infected and rot in a few days.
- Unsuitable for storage of young potatoes Therefore, potatoes should be picked up and stored after they are well nourished and matured in the land The juice from the mashed potatoes does not deplete very quickly, so the potatoes are stored in good condition for a long time.
- It is better to remove the potatoes from the ground immediately and keep them in the shade for 7/8 days. This protects the potato from spawning of twine insects and the potato does not lose its aqueous portion very quickly during storage. In addition, due to the increase in the disease resistance of potatoes, the potatoes are protected from rot
- Good potatoes should be stored by selecting cut, peeled, infested and diseased potatoes. In that case, the potato will be stored in good condition for a long time
- Although potatoes can be stored well in cold storage for a long time, only a small portion of the total potatoes produced in Bangladesh can be stored through this management. The main reason is that the number of cold storages is very inadequate Where the average production of potatoes in the country is more than eight lakh tonnes per annum, only 60,000 tonnes of potatoes, i.e. one tenth of the total production, can be stored in 6 cold storages of the country. Therefore, in order to store potatoes as required, it is very important to set up more cold storages in the country
Store potatoes at home
Farmers usually store potatoes in cold storage. Again, many farmers store potatoes at home. But many times the potatoes rot because the preservation method is not correct. In order to store potatoes at home, a number of rules have to be followed from the time of potato collection which are given below.
- Potatoes should be picked in the morning on days when there is enough sun. Potatoes cannot be picked on cloudy or rainy days.
- Potatoes should be picked only when they are fully cooked. 8-10 days before harvesting, the roots of the potato plant should be cut off and the plant should be separated.
- When picking, potatoes should be carefully picked so that the spade or plow does not cut or crush the potatoes. Mashed potatoes rot when stored.
- It is better to bring potatoes home in sacks.
- Usually plastic baskets or basins should be used when filling potatoes in sacks. If you want to use a bamboo basket, you have to sew a sack in the middle of the basket.
- Potatoes picked from the ground should be brought home as soon as possible. If for any reason potato has to be kept in the field, it should be spread in a shady place and covered with a thin cloth / straw.
- Potatoes should be brought home and kept in a clean and dry place. Too loud, you can’t pour potatoes from high. Within 8-10 days of harvest, potatoes should be cleaned and separated according to size (large, medium and small).
- Work prior to conservation
- Cut, peel, catch insects and catch diseased potatoes should be selected and separated. If there is diseased potato in the stored potato, it will spread to other potatoes. As a result, all the potatoes will be spoiled in a few days.
- Young potatoes should not be stored. Nutritious and nutty potatoes should be stored as its juice does not deplete quickly, so it can be stored well for a long time.
- As soon as the potatoes are picked from the land, they should be removed to another place and kept in the shade for 7/8 days. This reduces insect infestation during storage and dries the juice in the potato less. Moreover, it increases the disease resistance of potatoes. As a result, the possibility of rotting of potatoes is greatly reduced.
- Potato storage method at home
- To store potatoes, you need to build a hut under any tree in the house where there is less sunlight.
- A scaffolding should be made 10-15 cm (one inch) above the ground.
- Bamboo fence should be provided from the loft to the rice. Bamboo fences should be provided in such a way that there is enough space in the upper part of the fence so that there is enough light and air circulation.
- In this way 150-200 mana potatoes can be stored in the house.
- Preserved potatoes should be picked regularly after 10-15 days. Diseased, infested and rotten potatoes should be discarded as soon as they are seen.
- If twine insects are seen in the potatoes, they should be picked immediately and buried in a hole far away.
Benefits of storing potato cultivation at home:
- It costs around Rs 20,000 to build a house to store potatoes at home. But once it is ready, potatoes can be kept there for many years.
- Farmers can sell potatoes at any time. There is no problem to go to the cold storage and take out the potatoes.
- There is no cost to travel to the cold storage.
- Disadvantages of storing potatoes at home:
- Potatoes stored at home weigh less than those stored at cold storage.
- Potatoes cannot be stored for more than 6 months.
- The country produces about 15-20 lakh metric tons of potatoes every year. 48% of the total potatoes produced in Bangladesh are stored in cold storage. The remaining 52 percent of potatoes are stored at home by farmers. But due to lack of proper storage in cold storage and at home, more than Rs 50 crore is wasted in potato cultivation crop every year.